Chitosan is natural biopolymer of amino polysaccharides which is derived from chitin. Chitosan has multifunctional biological properties such as non-toxic, biodegradability, biocompatibility, adsorption and antimicrobial properties. This important feature is significantly have been widely used in pharmaceutical and medical applications as synthetic material for bone tissue engineering, wound healing and drug delivery. Chitosan based nanocomposites have potential antimicrobial activity against different bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens it’s valuable for biological application of drug development system. Chitosan or combined with synthetic/ natural polymers based composites have been widely investigated for versatile biomedical use of drug delivery, wound healing, anti-microbial agent, tissue engineering, food preservative and anti-tumor activities. In this review will focus on the advantages of chitosan based nanocomposites or composites for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.